The Tundra Biome

Project Done By: Vanessa, Samantha & Dillon

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The tundra is located around the North Pole in the Arctic Circle. The layer of earth beneath the tundra is frozen all year long. This is called the permafrost. Industrial activity in the tundra may add to the world's environmental problems.

Precipitation: Expecting deep snow, many are surprised to learn that the tundra may recieve no more precipitation than a desert. The
tundra recieves less than 10 inches of precipitation yearly.

Sunlight- The Tundra only get about 6 months worth of sunlight a year.

Temperature: The tundra is an extremely cold and dry biome. The average yearly temperature is only 10°F to 20°F.
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Average Temperature in Summer- (53.6°F)
Average Temperature in Winter- (-14°F)
Average Annual Rainfall- (12-20 in.)

Climate: The tundra is the coldest region in the world. Fierce winds blow while snow and ice cover the ground. Even the sea freezes as the temperature gets colder. Sometimes the strong winds create "white outs" when the snow blows so much. During the summers the top layer of sil thaws but the underlying piece of soil remains frozen. During the summer rainwater can't soak into the soil so the Tundra has shallow ponds and marshy areas over the summer. Near the Arctic Circle the sun doesn't set during the midsummer.

Animal Species: A large variety of animals live in the tundra for the whole year. They have special adaptations that allow them to survive in the winter weather. Some of these include: short legs; long hair; and a coat of thick fur. They have short tails and large, furry feet. Many animals have white fur which camoflauges them against the snow. Some animals that live in the tundra are polar bears, caribou, and penguins. The Tundra also has insect eating birds which take advantage of the plentiful food and long days of eating as much as they can. When the winter comes all of the insects die out so the birds fly south for the winter. Some of the mammals that live in the Tundra are Caribou, Foxes, Wolves, and Arctic Hares. Mammals that stay on the Tundra during the winter get thicker fur coats than usual animals that live there. Some of the animals that live there find it hard to get food. Such as Caribou. For Caribou to live there they have to dig threw the snow to be able to find lichens. Lichens are a form of fungus which these Caribou live off of. Wolves that live in the Tundra which are one of the other mammals that live in the Tundra follow these herds of Caribou eat off of the members.
Caribou
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The Caribou is one of the mammals that stay in the Tundra year round. The Caribou in the winter do not usually get alot of food. The only food they eat in the summer are Lichens. Lichens as I said before are forms of fungus which are like mushrooms. The way they have to get them are by scraping snow away from the earth to go to eat them. This animal fits into the society and into the food chain because the foxes from the higher level of the energy which will move the energy into the next level.

Emperor Peguins:
During the winter months, male peguins gather together to for a huge circle to keep warm using each other's body heat. They also alternate turns. While the female peguins go hunting for food, the male are held responsible of the children awaiting the female's return.

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The emperor peguins have seventeen species that live in the tundra and they survive the tundra because of their feather.On the coastal strips of the continental mainland of Antarctica is where the peguins breed. Whenever at lost the peguins each have a special sound to find each other. The height of the peguins usually are fourty five inches. While diving they reach depths of one thousand three hundred feet and can stay under water for as long as nine minutes. Meanwhile, they are underwater they use their flippers as wings to dive and because of their massive weight, they have a great advantage under cold conditions. With less surface area there is more body heat lost. Even though penguins have wings they can't fly, as stated they are they are"permanent residents of the land of ice". Penguins do not have a long period of migration like most birds of the Arctic do.external image emperor-penguins.JPG?w=270&h=210
Emperor Peguin Video Clip:
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Importance:
The animals found in this biome are totally diffrent from those of the tropics. There aren't that many species but the ones that are in this biome would never survive in the tropics because of the diffrent adaptations. These species have developed under extrme pressure which is why they adapt well to these conditions. These specie's genes would be helpful in the future for humans, so this is a major reason why we need conserve them.

Resource:
Peter Moore D. Biomes of the Earth Tundra. Illustrations by Richard Garrett. New York: An imprint of infobase publishing, 2006.

Plants: During the short-growing season in the summer, the tundra blooms with a variety of low-growing plants. For example, the only tree that grows in the tundra biome is the dwarf willow tree. Also some of the other plants that live are mosses, grasses, and shrubs. The plant growth takes place in the long days of the short summers.

Dwarf Willow Tree
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Energy Flow: Food Web
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Land:
The land in the Tundra is open with very low vegetation. It has high mountain tops which hardly have any vegetation at all. The icy conditions of the land are to severe for thegrowth of tall trees. None of the Tundra's vegetation is spread to the North pole nor South pole. Vegetation from the Tundra is present in some of the earths surfaces. Tempatures are particularly cold in high altitudes such as mountaintops and polar regions. The highest peaks have hardly any vegetation and are packed with ice. Most of the glaciers occupy the valleys. Below the ice zone lies the Alpine Tundra.

Work Cited
Google www.google.com- Tundra Wikipedia.
http://oncampus.richmond.edu/academics/education/projects/webunits/biomes/tundra.html
http://rrms-biomes.tripod.com/id2.html
http://curriculum.calstatela.edu/courses/builders/lessons/less/biomes/tundra/tundraweb.html
http://www.chs.k12.nf.ca/science/b3201/WebCT-Copy/images/lesson-images/lesson02/tempature.gif
http://www.ericksonscience.com/biomes/student%20websites/period%201/17_1_hannah/17hannahfrostytundrapic.jpg
http://www.phschool.com/atschool/science_activity_library/images/earths_biomes4.gif
http://www.panacheexteriordesign.com/plants/dwarfwillow.jpg
http://oncampus.richmond.edu/academics/education/projects/webunits/biomes/tunclimate.html
http://oncampus.richmond.edu/academics/education/projects/webunits/biomes/tunplants.html
http://oncampus.richmond.edu/academics/education/projects/webunits/biomestunanimals.html